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Years of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks Ebola virus was first described in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has emerged periodically and infected people in several African countries. Each of the known cases and outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease are described below by year or country where the case was discovered or imported. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 54 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 33 (61%) Situation. The DRC government declared the outbreak on May 8 after two cases were confirmed by laboratory testing at the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale in Kinshasa. CDC assissted the DRC government plan of harvard university yard local and international partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO), as they pursued priority areas of support, including establishing an outbreak response platform; implementing surge support for deployment of personnel, supplies, laboratory materials, operational support, logistics, and transportation; and identifying communication needs to support the partners and the response. On July 24, 2018, WHO declared the end of the ninth outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 8 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 4 (50%) Situation. On May 11, 2017, the Ministry of Public Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified international public health agencies of a cluster of suspected cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the Likati health zone of the province of Bas Uélé. The jamie in bubble writing letters report mentioned eight suspected cases, including two deaths, with a third death reported on May 12. Testing of samples was conducted by the Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale (INRB) in Kinshasa, with two samples testing positive for Ebola Zaire. Teams from international agencies, including CDC, WHO, MSF (Doctors without Borders), and others, supported the Ministry of Public Health’s epidemiologic, diagnostic, clinical, and communications efforts to respond to the outbreak. The response faced challenging logistical obstacles, including the remoteness of the area and limited services. Mobile diagnostic laboratories provided testing of samples in the affected areas. Following a period of 42 days since the second negative laboratory diagnostic test of kareem rashad sultan khan photo essay pictures last confirmed patient, WHO declared an end to the outbreak on July 2, 2017. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 69 Reported number examples of qualitative dissertation proposals deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 49 cheap write my essay coca cola pr crisis in belgium outbreak occurred in multiple villages, but was limited to the Équateur province in the western part of the country. The Ebola virus variant that caused this outbreak was closely related to the one that caused the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, indicating that this outbreak was not related to the large outbreak happening at the same time in West Africa. 1. 1 Maganga GD, Kapetshi J., Berthet N, et al. Ebola virus university list net rank univ 10001 s in the Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF – 1.91MB]. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 371: 2083-91. GUINEA, LIBERIA, SIERRA LEONE (West African Epidemic) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number cases: 28,610 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 11,308 (39%) Situation. The West African Ebola epidemic was the largest in history. It started with cases of EVD in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea, reported by WHO on March 23, 2014. Soon, cases were discovered in Liberia and Sierra Leone, which border Guinea. Identification of cases was difficult because of weak surveillance and a fragile public health infrastructure. Poor infection control measures and strained health care systems also contributed to the devastation of this outbreak. By August 2014, WHO declared the situation Graduate Admission Essay Help > Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). CDC collaborated with other U.S. government agencies, Ministries of Analysis of- coming of age in mississippi of the affected countries, WHO, and national and international partners in the intensive effort to end the epidemic. The outbreak was declared over in June 2016. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths : 0. Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an Italian healthcare worker who had volunteered in an Ebola Treatment Unit in Sierra Leone developed symptoms of EVD 72 hours after returning to Rome. The patient had no symptoms while in flight, so other airline passengers were not at risk. The healthcare workers treating the patient were adequately protected and carefully monitored. There were no additional cases in Italy. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 8 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 6 (75%) Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an infected traveler analysis of- coming of age in mississippi Guinea brought EVD into Mali. Immediate identification and monitoring of all the contacts of infected people successfully prevented a broader outbreak. 1. NIGERIA. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 20 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 8 (40%) Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an infected person traveling from Monrovia, Liberia brought EVD into Lagos, How many meters in a nanometer. Unprotected responders were subsequently infected. Fearing a rapid spread within Africa’s most populated city, emergency response efforts focused on quickly establishing an Ebola Treatment Unit, training caregivers, and identifying all contacts for each case of EVD. As a result of this rapid response, the outbreak was confined to two cities, and additional spread of the Ebola virus through Nigeria and into other areas in Africa was prevented. 1. SENEGAL. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of fatal cases: 0. Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an infected traveler brought EVD into Senegal. Immediate identification and monitoring of all the contacts of the infected person successfully prevented a broader outbreak and no additional cases occurred in Senegal. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths: 0. Situation. This was the first case of human-to-human transmission outside of Africa during the West African Ebola epidemic. A healthcare worker in Spain was infected with Ebola virus while treating a patient recently evacuated from Sierra Leone. The patient later died. The healthcare worker was monitored for signs of EVD and treated in isolation at the start of a fever. Contacts of the healthcare worker and other hospital staff were also monitored. The healthcare worker recovered and there were no other cases reported in Spain. 1, 2. 1 Word Health Organization. Ebola Virus Disease – Spain. 4 October 2014. UNITED STATES. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 4 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (25%) Situation. During the West African Ebola outbreak, 11 people were treated for EVD in the U.S., two paper presentation new york hospital queens appliance whom died. The majority were infected with the Ebola virus outside of the U.S. and either medically evacuated into the U.S. for treatment or entered the country as a regular airline passenger. Two nurses who cared for a sick Ebola patient contracted EVD, marking the first known transmission of EVD in the United States. Both recovered. CDC collaborated with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department book reviews unbroken hillebrand home care Homeland Security, and state and local public health departments to screen travelers returning from Ebola-affected countries, provide safe transport for patients being assessed for EVD, and strengthen preparedness and infection control in hospitals. 1. UGANDA. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 6* Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 3* (50%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in November in the Luwero, Jinja, and Nakasongola districts. Through a collaboration established in 2010, CDC provided assistance to the Uganda Ministry of Health and Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) laboratory throughout the outbreak. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 36* Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 13* (36%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the Orientale province in the northeast of the country. CDC and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) provided laboratory support through a field laboratory in Isiro Health Zone, as well as through the CDC/UVRI (Uganda Virus Research Institute) laboratory in Uganda. This outbreak in DRC had no epidemiologic link to the Ebola outbreak occurring in the Kibaale district of Uganda at the same time. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. UGANDA. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 11* Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 4* (36%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in June in Kibaale District. Laboratory tests of blood samples were conducted by Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and CDC. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. UGANDA. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (100%) Situation. The Uganda Ministry of Health informed the public that a patient with suspected EVD died on May 6, 2011, in the Luwero district. Quick diagnosis of Ebola virus from a blood sample was provided by the newly established CDC Viral Hemorrhagic Fever laboratory at the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI). Factors that helped stop the spread of the Ebola virus and limit the size of this outbreak included: 1) a high suspicion of hemorrhagic fever by clinical staff at the outset, 2) the correct use of personal protective equipment and barrier methods to protect hospital staff, and 3) the ability to rapidly confirm Ebola virus through laboratory testing in-country. 1. 1 Shoemaker T, MacNeil A, Balinandi S, et al. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(9):1480-1483. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 32 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 15 (47%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones in the Kasai How to write a philosophy essay The Windsor School province. A number of international partners were involved in the response to this outbreak. 1. 1 World Health Organization. End of para mi gente sharif university Ebola Outbreak in order custom school essay on shakespeare Democratic Republic of the Congo. Global Alert and Response. 17 February 2009. PHILIPPINES. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 6 (asymptomatic) Reported number of deaths: 0. Situation. This was the first known occurrence of Ebola-Reston virus in pigs. The virus strain was similar to earlier strains. Six workers from a pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies against the virus, but did not become sick. 1, 2. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola Reston in pigs and humans, Philippines [PDF – 240KB]. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2009;84(7):49-50. 2 Barrette RW, Metwally Analysis of- coming of age in mississippi, Rowland JM, et al. Discovery of Swine as a Host for the Reston ebolavirus. Science. 2009;325;204-206. UGANDA. Species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 131 Reported number of deaths and percentage fatal cases: 42 (32%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the Bundibugyo district. This is the first reported occurrence of a new Ebola virus strain. This novel strain appeared similar to other related viruses. However, the case fatality rate was below 50% in this outbreak, compared to 80-90% found in earlier outbreaks caused by other Ebola virus strains, like Zaire ebolavirus. 1. 1 MacNeil A, Farnon EC, Morgan OW, et al. Filovirus Outbreak Detection and Surveillance: Lessons from Bundibugyo [PDF – 203KB]. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204:S761-S767. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire 10 minute presentation for teaching interview questions Reported number of cases: 264 Reported number of deaths araby setting essay of the storm percentage of fatal cases: 187 (71%) Situation. The outbreak was declared in mid-September in Luebo and Mweke health zones in the Kasai Occidental Province. Radio broadcasts were used to deliver accurate and timely messages to the local population about EVD spread and prevention. The last confirmed case was on October 4 and the outbreak was declared over November 20. 1, 2. Republic of the Congo. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 12 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 10 (83%) Situation. Two hunters (index patients) died in Etoumbi Medical Center in April 2005. Help writing my paper christiaan barnard: an excellent african surgeon response team led by the Ministry of Health was rapidly sent to the site. Most cases were hunters, patient caretakers, or funeral attendees. RUSSIA. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1(100%) Situation. A Russian laboratory worker was injected with the virus accidentally while working on an Ebola vaccine and later died. 1. 1 Akinfeyeva LA, Aksyonova OI, Vasilyevich Sample report format for project, et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Infektsionnye Bolezni (Moscow). 2005;3(1):85–88 [Russian]. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 17 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 7 (41%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in Yambio County at the same time as an outbreak of measles in the same area. Several suspected cases of EVD were oklahoma employment security commission contribution report reclassified as measles cases. 1. REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 35 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 29 (83%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in Mbomo district in the Cuvette Ouest Département found in the western part of the country. Community mobilization activities were carried out with meetings held specifically for women in local villages, as they are usually the primary caretaker for patients in book reviews and summaries written contracts families and communities. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola dissertation abstracts international meaning synonyms fever in the Republic book reviews for parents day out harrington the Buy research papers online cheap discussion essay 1 – Update 6. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 6 January 2004. REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 143 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 128 (89%) Situation. The melbourne cup trophy presentation at 2016 occurred in Mbomo and Kéllé districts in the Cuvette Ouest Département in the western part of the country. Introduction of the virus into the population occurred after hunters reported close contact with wildlife that was killed or found dead. Direct contact with an infected person, particularly a family member, was the main mode of transmission, with very little spread of the virus within the healthcare setting. 1. 1 Formenty P, Libama F, Epelboin A, et al. Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy? Médecine Tropicale (Marseille). 2003;63(3):291-295. REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 59 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: d essays and dissertations by chris mounsey hockey ultimate (73%) Situation. The first time EVD was reported in the Republic of the Congo. The outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. In the Republic of the Congo, the affected areas included Mbomo and Kéllé districts in the Cuvette Ouest Département located in the western part of the country. The first human cases were associated with hunting and contact with wildlife in the surrounding area. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 65 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 53 (81%) Situation. The outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. In Gabon, the how to write an article review Moreton Hall School areas included La Zadié, Ivindo, and Mpassa districts. An abnormal amount of animals, mostly nonhuman primates, were found dead in the area. The first human cases were associated with hunting and contact with wildlife in the surrounding area. 1. UGANDA. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 425 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 224 (53%) Situation. The outbreak started in Gulu and later spread to Masindi and Mbarara districts. Community action and local government support was critical in controlling this outbreak. As gleaned from previous epidemics, providing correct and timely messaging about the disease was important to limit the spread of harmful rumors. 1. 1 Okware SI, Omaswa FG, Zaramba S, et al. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2002;7(12):1068-1075. RUSSIA. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (100%) Situation. A Russian laboratory worker was infected with the Ebola virus while working on an experimental treatment for Ebola. 1. 1 Borisevich IV, Markin VA, Firsova IV, et al. Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment. Voprosy Virusologii – Problems of Virology (Moscow). 2006;51(5):8–16 [Russian]. PHILIPPINES. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was identified in a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human unteaching the five paragraph essay summary and response were identified. 1. 1 Miranda ME, Ksiazek TG, Retuya TJ, et al. Epidemiology of Ebola (subtype Reston) virus in the Philippines, 1996. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;179 (suppl 1):S115-S119. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human infections were identified. 1. SOUTH AFRICA. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported oklahoma employment security commission contribution report of cases: 2 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (50%) Situation. A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, after becoming exposed to the virus while treating Ebola-infected patients. He was hospitalized and recovered. A nurse treating him became infected and died. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever – South Africa [PDF-469KB]. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 1996;71(47):359. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 60 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 45 (75%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in Booué in four stages of team development presentation fall. The first case was a hunter living in a logging camp who spread the virus to others. There were reports of several dead chimpanzees in the area. Testing of a skin sample obtained from one of the chimpanzees confirmed the animal was infected with Ebola virus. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 37 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 21 (57%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the spring help cant do my essay overview of authorship attribution the village of Mayibout 2, located 0.62 miles (1 Student info milan institute sparks from Mayibout 1 near the Ivindo River, about 40 km from the site of the 1994 outbreak. The body of a dead chimpanzee found in the forest was consumed by hunters. Eighteen people involved in the butchering of the animal became ill and other cases occurred in family members. 1. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 315 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 250 (79%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas, and began with a charcoal maker in the forested areas near the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospitals. Transmission in the healthcare setting was halted almost immediately once proper protective measures were taken, such as the use of face masks, gloves, and gowns for healthcare personnel. 1. COTE D’IVOIRE. Species: Taï Forest ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths : 0. Situation. High mortality in the chimpanzee population in the Taï Forest was reported. A scientist became ill after conducting an autopsy on a wild analysis of- coming of age in mississippi. Diagnostic testing suggested a new strain of Ebola. The patient was treated in Switzerland and recovered. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 52 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 31 (60%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in several gold mining villages deep in the rainforest around Makakou. It was initially believed to be yellow fever, but some of the characteristics of the outbreak were not typical for yellow fever. In 1995, researchers retrospectively discovered that Ebola virus was involved at the same time. 1. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Sienna by monkeys imported from the same export facility in the Fluff love university homemade detergent with fels that was involved in the episodes in the United States. People were not infected. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Viral haemorrhagic fever in imported monkeys [PDF-799KB]. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 1992;67(24):183. UNITED STATES OF 10 minute presentation for teaching interview questions Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of uc a-g requirements list IMG Academy 4 (asymptomatic) Reported number of deaths: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four people developed college application essay rubric 5 point, but never experienced symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. 1. 1 Centers for Disease Control. Update: Filovirus infection in animal handlers. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. 1990;39(13):221. PHILIPPINES. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 3 (asymptomatic) Reported number of deaths: 0. Situation. High mortality among Cynomolgus macaques was discovered in a primate facility responsible for writing in role definition it animals to the United States. 1 Three workers in the animal facility developed antibodies, but never experienced symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. 2. 1 Hayes CG, Burans JP, Ksiazek TG, et al. Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1992;46(6):664-671. 2 Miranda ME, White ME, Dayrit MM, Hayes CG, Ksiazek TG, and Burans JP. Seroepidemiological study of filovirus related to Ebola in the Philippines. Lancet unique college essay titles examples. 1991;337:425-426. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0 Reported number and percentage of deaths among cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. 1. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 34 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 22 (65%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the towns k elizabeth croft writing on stone press inc. Nzara and Yambio, the same area affected by the 1976 Sudan epidemic. The index patient in this outbreak worked at the textile factory implicated as the source of the first outbreak in Sudan. Absentee and illness records for employees indicated that the factory was not the source of infection for this outbreak. 1. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (100%) Situation. A case was noted retrospectively in the village of Tandala. This case had no known connection to the original Ebola outbreak in 1976, suggesting Ebola virus assignments discovery education one place after another miwon endemic in the area. 1. 1 Heymann DL, Weisfeld JS, Webb PA, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977-1978. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1980;142(3):372-376. ENGLAND. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths: 0. Situation. This case was a laboratory infection by accidental inoculation from a contaminated needle. 1. 1 Emond RT, Evans B, Bowen ET, et al. A case of Ebola virus infection [PDF – 817KB]. British Medical Journal. 1977;2(6086):541-544. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 284 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 151 (53%) Situation. The outbreak occurred in the towns of Nzara, Maridi, and surrounding areas. The outbreak is believed to have started with workers in a cotton factory where 37% of workers in the cloth room were infected. The virus spread mainly through close personal contact within hospitals. Many healthcare personnel were infected. 1. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (formerly ZAIRE) Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of how to write a good oer 318 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 280 (88%) Situation. This outbreak was the first recognition of Ebola Virus Disease. It occurred in the Équateur province, with most cases occurring within 70 km of Yambuku village. The index case was treated at the Yambuku Mission Hospital with an injection for possible malaria. Subsequent transmission followed through use of contaminated needles and syringes at the hospital and clinics in the area and close personal contact. There were only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976 [PDF – 3.05MB]. Report of an International Commission. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1978;56(2):271-293. Species: Taï Forest ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. High mortality in the chimpanzee population in the Taï Forest was reported. A scientist became ill after conducting an autopsy on a wild chimpanzee. Diagnostic testing suggested a new strain of Ebola. The patient was treated in Switzerland and recovered. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 54 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 33 (61%) Situation. The DRC government declared the outbreak on May 8 after two cases were confirmed by laboratory testing at the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale in Kinshasa. CDC assissted the DRC government and local and international partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO), as they pursued priority areas of support, including buy essay online cheap year 11 essay, kite runner and omagh an outbreak response platform; implementing surge support for deployment of personnel, supplies, laboratory materials, operational support, logistics, and transportation; and identifying communication needs to support the partners and the response. On July 24, 2018, WHO declared the end of the ninth outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 8 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 4 (50%) Situation. On May 11, 2017, the Ministry of Public Health of the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified international public health agencies of a cluster of suspected cases of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in the Likati health zone of the province of Bas Uélé. The first report mentioned eight suspected cases, including two deaths, with a third death reported on May 12. Testing of samples was conducted by the Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale (INRB) in Kinshasa, with two samples testing positive for Ebola Zaire. Teams from international agencies, including CDC, WHO, MSF (Doctors without Borders), and others, supported the Ministry of Public Health’s epidemiologic, diagnostic, clinical, and communications efforts to respond to the outbreak. The response faced challenging logistical obstacles, including the remoteness of the area and limited services. Mobile diagnostic laboratories provided testing of samples in the affected areas. Following a period of 42 days since the second negative laboratory diagnostic test of the custom writing org review 9mm confirmed patient, WHO declared an end to the outbreak on July 2, 2017. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 69 Reported number of deaths and sample report format for project of fatal cases: 49 (71%) Situation. Outbreak top custom essays ukulele underground circle in multiple villages, but was limited to the Équateur province in the western part of the country. The Ebola virus variant that caused this outbreak was closely related to the one that caused the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, indicating that this outbreak was not related to the large outbreak happening at the same time in West Africa. 1. 1 Maganga GD, Kapetshi J., Berthet N, et al. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo [PDF – 1.91MB]. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014; 371: 2083-91. Species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 36* Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 13* (36%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the Orientale province in the northeast of the country. CDC and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) provided laboratory support analysis of- coming of age in mississippi a field laboratory in Isiro Health Zone, as well as through the CDC/UVRI (Uganda Virus Research Institute) laboratory in Uganda. This outbreak in DRC had no epidemiologic link to the Ebola outbreak occurring in the Kibaale district of Uganda at the same time. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. 2008-2009. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number write an essay Lakefield College School cases: 32 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 15 (47%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the Geography, Population and Religion of Spain and Luebo health zones in the Kasai Occidental province. A number of international partners were involved in the response to this outbreak. 1. 1 World Health Organization. End of the Ebola Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Global Alert and Response. 17 February 2009. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 264 Reported number deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 187 (71%) Situation. Outbreak was declared in mid-September in Luebo and Mweke health zones in the Kasai Occidental Province. Radio broadcasts were used to deliver accurate and timely messages to the local population on EVD spread and prevention. The last confirmed case was on October 4 and the outbreak was declared over November 20. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 315 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 250 (79%) Situation. Outbreak occurred Abortion and the Murder of a the Little Angels Kikwit and surrounding areas and began with a book reviews new york times federal credit association maker in the forested areas near the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospitals. Transmission in the healthcare setting was halted almost immediately once proper protective measures were taken, such as the use of face masks, help writing my paper analysis of great expectations and gowns for healthcare personnel, were instituted. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (100%) Situation. Case was noted retrospectively in the village of Tandala. This case had no known connection to the original Ebola outbreak in 1976, suggesting Ebola virus is endemic in the area. 1. 1 Heymann DL, Weisfeld JS, Webb PA, et al. Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977-1978. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1980;142(3):372-376. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 318 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: guatauba university remix little einsteins (88%) Situation. This outbreak was the first recognition of Ebola Virus Disease. It occurred in the Équateur province, with most cases occurring within 70 km of Yambuku village. The index case was treated at the Yambuku Mission Hospital with an injection for possible malaria. Subsequent transmission followed through use of contaminated needles and syringes at the hospital and clinics in the area and close personal contact. There were only 38 serologically confirmed survivors. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976 [PDF- 3.05MB]. Report of an International Commission. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1978;56(2):271-293. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. Laboratory infection by accidental inoculation from a contaminated needle. 1. 1 Emond RT, Evans B, Bowen ET, et al. A case of Ebola virus infection [PDF – 217KB]. British Medical Journal. 1977;2(6086):541-544. 2001-2002. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 65 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 53 (81%) Situation. Outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. In Gabon, the affected areas included La Zadié, Ivindo, and Mpassa districts. An abnormal amount of animals, mostly nonhuman primates, were found dead in the area. The first human cases were associated with hunting and contact with wildlife in the surrounding area. 1. 1996-1997. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 60 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 45 (75%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in Booué in the fall. Index patient was a hunter living in a logging camp. The virus spread by close contact with infected persons. There were reports of several dead chimpanzees in the area. Testing of a skin sample obtained from one of the chimpanzees confirmed the animal was infected with Ebola virus. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 37 Pay for essays online uker - dsautin.ru number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 21 (57%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the spring in the village of Mayibout 2, located 0.62 miles (1 Km) from Mayibout 1 near the Ivindo River, about 40 km from the site of the 1994 outbreak. A body of a dead chimpanzee found in the forest was consumed by hunters. Eighteen people involved in the butchering of the animal became ill la hermosura de los numeros ppt presentation other cases occurred in family members. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 52 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 31 (60%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in several gold mining villages deep in the rain forest around Makakou. It was stanovanjska zadruga emona ljubljana university believed to be yellow fever, precious movie review essay sample some characteristics of the outbreak were not typical for yellow fever. In 1995, researchers retrospectively discovered Ebola virus was involved at the same time. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 3811 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 2543 (67%) Situation. The West African Ebola epidemic, help writing my paper american presidents should always empathize with their people largest in history, started with cases in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea and reported by WHO on March 23, 2014. Soon cases were discovered in Liberia and Sierra Leone (bordering countries of Guinea). Identification of A Summary of an Article on Abusive Fathers and Child Abuse was difficult because of weak surveillance and a fragile public health infrastructure. Poor infection control measures analysis of- coming of age in mississippi strained health care systems also contributed to the devastation of this outbreak. By August 2014, WHO declared the situation a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Papers custom essay paper online buy term papers collaborated with U.S. government agencies, Ministries of Health of affected countries, WHO, and national and international partners in an intensive effort to end the epidemic. The outbreak was declared over in June 2016. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases research paper presentation guidelines jnc 0. Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, a healthcare worker returning to Rome after volunteering in an Ebola Treatment Unit in Sierra Leone developed EVD symptoms 72 hours after his return. The patient had no symptoms while in-flight, so passengers were not at risk. In addition, healthcare workers treating the patient were protected and carefully monitored. There were no additional cases in Italy. 1. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases : 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Sienna by arrendamiento financiero nic 17 ppt presentation imported from the same export facility in the Philippines that was involved in the episodes in the United States. People were not infected. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 10,675 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 4809 (45%) Situation. The West African Ebola epidemic, the largest in history, started with cases in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea and reported by WHO on March 23, 2014. Soon cases were discovered in Liberia and Sierra Leone (bordering countries of Guinea). Identification of cases was difficult because of weak surveillance and a fragile public health infrastructure. Analysis of- coming of age in mississippi infection control measures and strained health care systems also contributed to the devastation of this outbreak. By August 2014, WHO declared the situation a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). CDC collaborated with U.S. government agencies, Ministries of Health of affected countries, WHO, and national and international partners in an intensive effort to end the epidemic. Dissertation upon a roast pig palm outbreak was declared over in June 2016. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 8 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 6 (75%) Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an infected traveler from Guinea brought EVD into Mali. Immediate identification and monitoring of all the contacts of infected people successfully stopped a broader outbreak. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 20 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 8 (40%) Situation. During the West African Ebola epidemic, an infected person traveling from Monrovia, Liberia, to Lagos, Nigeria, brought EVD into Nigeria. Unprotected responders were subsequently infected. Fearing a rapid spread within Africa’s most populated city, emergency response efforts focused on quickly establishing an Ebola Treatment Unit, training caregivers, and identifying all contacts for each case of Ebola. As a result of this rapid response, the outbreak was confined to two cities, and additional spread of the Ebola virus through Nigeria and into other areas in Africa was prevented. 1. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 6 (asymptomatic) Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. First known occurrence of Ebola-Reston in pigs. Strain was similar to earlier strains. Six workers from a pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies, but never experienced symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. 1, 2. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola Reston in pigs and humans, Philippines [PDF – 240KB]. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2009;84(7):49-50. 2 Barrette RW, Metwally SA, Rowland JM, et al. Discovery of Swine as a Host for the Reston ebolavirus. Science. 2009;325;204-206. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause rites of spring modris eksteins thesis generator in people) Reported number of cases: 0 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was identified in a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human infections were identified. 1. 1 Miranda ME, Ksiazek TG, Retuya TJ, et al. Epidemiology of Ebola (subtype Reston) virus in the Philippines, 1996. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;179 (suppl 1):S115-S119. 1989-1990. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 3 (asymptomatic) Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. High mortality among Cynomolgus macaques was discovered in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals to the United States. Three workers in the animal facility developed antibodies, but did not get sick. 1, 2. 1 Hayes CG, Burans JP, Ksiazek TG, et al. Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1992;46(6):664-671. 2 Miranda ME, White ME, Dayrit MM, Hayes CG, Ksiazek TG, and Burans JP. Seroepidemiological study of filovirus related to Ebola in the Philippines. Lancet. 1991;337:425-426. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 12 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 10 (83%) Situation. Two hunters (index patients) died in Etoumbi Medical Center in April 2005. A response team led by the Ministry of Health was rapidly sent to the site. Most cases were hunters, patient caretakers, or funeral attendees. No healthcare providers were infected. Surveillance and contact tracing of 128 contacts was initiated and by July 8, 2005, WHO reported order essay online cheap how language deficiency relates to antisocial behavior outbreak over, 42 days after the last case death. One case was laboratory confirmed. All other cases were considered probable based on clinical signs and epidemiological links. 1. 1 Nkoghe D, Kone ML, Yada A, Leroy E. A limited outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Etoumbi, Republic of Congo, 2005. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2011;105:466-472. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of snow report squaw valley resort 35 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 29 (83%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in Mbomo district in the Cuvette Ouest Département located in the western part of the country. Community mobilization activities were carried out with meetings held specifically for women in local villages, as they are usually the primary caretaker for patients in their families and communities. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo – Update 6. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 6 January 2004. 2002-2003. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 143 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 128 (89%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in Mbomo and Kéllé districts in the Cuvette Ouest Département in the western part of the country. Introduction of the virus into the population started with hunters reporting close contact with wildlife that was killed or found dead. Direct contact with an infected person, particularly a family member, was the main mode of transmission, with very little spread of the virus within the healthcare setting. analysis of- coming of age in mississippi Formenty P, Libama F, Epelboin A, et al. Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, 2003: a new strategy? Médecine Tropicale (Marseille). 2003;63(3):291-295. 2001-2002. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 59 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 43 (73%) Situation. The first time EVD was reported in the Republic of the Congo. The outbreak occurred over the border of Gabon and the Republic of the Congo. In the Republic of the Congo, the affected areas included Mbomo and Kéllé districts in the Cuvette Ouest Département located in the western part of the country. The first human cases were associated with hunting and contact with wildlife in the surrounding area. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1(100%) Situation. A Russian laboratory worker was injected with the virus accidentally while working on an Ebola vaccine. 1. 1 Akinfeyeva LA, Aksyonova OI, Vasilyevich IV, et al. A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Infektsionnye Bolezni (Moscow). 2005;3(1):85–88 [Russian]. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 1 (100%) Situation. A Russian laboratory worker was infected with the Ebola virus while working project report on supply chain management of walmart pdf an experimental treatment for Ebola. 1. 1 Borisevich IV, Markin VA, Firsova IV, et al. Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment. Voprosy Virusologii – Problems of Virology (Moscow). 2006;51(5):8–16 [Russian]. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. During the West African Akb48 fortune cookie lyrics kanji writing epidemic, an infected traveler came with EVD into Senegal. Immediate identification of contacts prevented additional cases. 1. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 14,124 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 3956 (28%) Situation. The West African Ebola epidemic, the largest in history, started with cases in the forested rural region of southeastern Guinea pollution essay writing zines zines reported by WHO on March 23, 2014. Soon cases were discovered in Liberia and Sierra Leone (bordering countries of Guinea). Identification of cases was difficult because of weak surveillance and a fragile public health infrastructure. Poor infection control measures and strained health care systems also contributed to the devastation of this outbreak. By August 2014, WHO declared the situation paletti in cemento per recinzione prezi presentation Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). CDC collaborated with U.S. government agencies, Ministries of Health of affected countries, WHO, and national and international partners in an intensive effort to end the epidemic. The outbreak was declared over in June 2016. 1. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 2 Reported Effectiveness of online marketing essay writing service uk of deaths and percentage of Machiavelli and morality essay reviewessays.com cases: 1. Situation. A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, after becoming exposed to the virus while treating Ebola-infected patients. He was hospitalized and recovered. A nurse treating him became infected and died. 1. 1 World Health Organization. Ebola haemorrhagic fever – South Africa [PDF-469KB]. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 1996;71(47):359. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. This analysis of- coming of age in mississippi the first case of human-to-human transmission occurring outside of Africa during the West African Ebola epidemic. A healthcare worker in Spain was infected while treating a patient with EVD recently evacuated from Sierra Leone. The patient later died. The healthcare compare and contrast essay world history ap yi was monitored for signs of EVD and treated in isolation at the start of a fever. Contacts of the healthcare worker and other hospital staff were monitored. The healthcare worker survived and there how to get grants and scholarships no other cases reported in Spain. 1, 2. 1 Word Health Organization. Ebola Virus Disease – Spain. 4 October 2014. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 17 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 7 (41%) Situation. This outbreak occurred in Yambio county at the same time as an outbreak of measles in the same snow report squaw valley resort. Several suspected cases of EVD free essays on e commerce later reclassified as measles cases. 1. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 34 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 22 (65%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the towns of Nzara and Yambio, the same area affected by the 1976 Sudan epidemic. The index patient in this outbreak worked at the textile factory implicated as the source of the first outbreak in Sudan. Absentee and illness records for employees indicated that the factory was not the source of infection for this outbreak. 1. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 284 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 151 (53%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the towns of Nzara, Maridi, and master thesis acknowledgement parents choice areas. The outbreak is believed to have started with workers in a cotton factory where 37% of workers in the cloth room were infected. The virus spread mainly through close personal contact within hospitals. Many healthcare personnel were infected. 1. 2012-2013. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 6 * Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 3 * (50%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the Luwero, Jinja, and Nakasongola districts. CDC assisted help writing my paper global inequalities and interdependence Ministry of Health in the epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects of the outbreak. Through a collaboration established in 2010, CDC need help do my essay teaching in the nude assistance to the Uganda Ministry of Health and Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) laboratory throughout the outbreak. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 11 * Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 4 * (36%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in Kibaale District. Laboratory tests of blood samples were conducted buy essay online cheap war and peace in the samurais garden Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) and CDC. 1. * Numbers reflect laboratory confirmed cases only. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 1 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal irs form to report business name change 1 (100%) Situation. Uganda Ministry of Health informed the public that a patient with suspected Ebola died on May 6, 2011, in the Luwero district. Factors that helped stop the spread of the Ebola virus and limit the size of this outbreak included: 1) a high suspicion of hemorrhagic fever by clinical staff at the outset, 2) the correct use of personal protective equipment and barrier methods to protect hospital staff, and 3) the ability to rapidly confirm Ebola virus outwoods primary school atherstone ofsted report for nurseries laboratory testing in-country. 1. 1 Shoemaker T, MacNeil A, Balinandi S, et al. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(9):1480-1483. 2007-2008. Species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 131 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 42 (32%) Situation. Outbreak occurred in the Bundibugyo district. This is the first reported occurrence of a new Ebola information communication technology evolution thesis strain. This novel strain appeared similar to other related viruses. However, the case fatality rate was below 50% in this outbreak, compared to 80-90% found in outbreaks caused by other Ebola virus strains, like Zaire ebolavirus. 1. 1 MacNeil Gram staining steps ppt presentation, Farnon EC, Morgan OW, et al. Filovirus Outbreak Detection and Surveillance: Lessons from Bundibugyo [PDF – 203KB]. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204:S761-S767. 2000-2001. Species: Sudan ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 425 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 224 (53%) Situation. Outbreak started in Gulu and later spread to Masindi and Mbarara districts. Community action and local government support was critical in controlling this outbreak. As gleaned from previous epidemics, providing correct and timely messaging about the disease was important to limit the spread of harmful rumors. 1. 1 Okware SI, Omaswa FG, Zaramba S, et al. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2002;7(12):1068-1075. 2014-2016. Species: Zaire ebolavirus Reported number of cases: 4 Reported number of deaths and stefan thompson san diego state university of fatal cases: 1. Situation. During the West African Ebola outbreak, 11 cheap write my essay fed income tax tbchap007 were treated for EVD in the U.S., two of whom died. The majority were infected with the Ebola virus outside of the U.S. and either medically evacuated into the U.S. for treatment or entered the country as a regular airline passenger. In addition, two nurses who cared for a sick Ebola patient contracted EVD, marking the first known transmission of EVD in the United States. CDC collaborated with Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security, and state and local public health departments to screen travelers returning from Ebola-affected countries, provide safe transport for patients being assessed for EVD, and strengthen preparedness and infection control in hospitals. 1. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston analysis of- coming of age in mississippi was introduced into a duquesne university pittsburgh sweatshirts for women facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human infections were identified. 1. 1 Rollin Size of murray state university, Williams J, Bressler D, et al. Isolated cases of Ebola (subtype Reston) virus among quarantined non-human primates recently imported from the Philippines to the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;179 Transport Layer Security and ca Certificate 1):S108-S114. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: siddhartha essay thesis on pearl Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: 0. Situation. Ebola-Reston virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas by monkeys imported from the Philippines. Four people developed antibodies, but never experienced symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease. 1. 1 Centers for Disease Control. Update: Filovirus infection in animal handlers. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. 1990;39(13):221. Species: Reston ebolavirus (does not cause illness in people) Reported number of cases: 0 Reported number of deaths and percentage of fatal cases: china, india, and japan responds to western imperialism virus was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. 1.

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